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The Power Transmission112. The engine power is delivered first to the flywheel and then to the clutch. From the clutch, which is the means of coupling the engine with the power-transmission units, the power flows through the transmission and is delivered into the rear-axle drive gears, or differential, by means of the drive shaft and universal joints. The dif­ferential delivers the power to each of the rear wheels through the rear-axle drive shafts.
Вариант №5.

AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY.

FIXED AND PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION
Automated production lines. An automated production line consists of a series of workstations connected by a transfer system to move parts between the stations. This is an example of fixed automation, since these lines are set up for long produc­tion runs, making large number of product units and running for several years between changeovers. Each station is designed to perform a specific processing op­eration, so that the part or product is constructed stepwise as it progresses along the line. A raw work part enters at one end of the line, proceeds through each workstation and appears at the other end as a completed product. In the normal operation of the line, there is a work part being processed at each station, so that many parts are being processed simultaneously and a finished part is produced with each cycle of the line. The various opera­tions, part transfers, and other activities taking place on an automated transfer line must all be sequenced and co­ordinated properly for the line to operate efficiently.

Modern automated lines are controlled by program­mable logic controllers, which are special computers that can perform timing and sequencing113 functions required to operate such equipment. Automated production lines are utilized in many industries, mostly automobile, where they are used for processes such as machining and pressworking114.

Machining is a manufacturing process in which metal is removed by a cutting or shaping tool, so that the remain­ing work part is the desired shape. Machinery and motor components are usually made by this process. In many cases, multiple operations are required to completely shape the part. If the part is mass-produced, an automated transfer line is often the most economical method of pro­duction. Many separate operations are divided among the workstations.

Pressworking operations involve the cutting and forming of parts from sheet metal. Examples of such parts include automobile body panels, outer shells of laundry machines and metal furniture More than one processing step is often required to complete a compli­cated part. Several presses are connected together in se­quence by handling mechanisms that transfer the par­tially completed parts from one press to the next, thus creating an automated pressworking line.

Numerical control115. Numerical control is a form of programmable auto­mation in which a machine is controlled by numbers (and other symbols) that have been coded on punched paper tape or an alternative storage medium. The initial appli­cation of numerical control was in the machine tool in­dustry, to control the position of a cutting tool relative to the work part being machined. The NC part program represents the set of machining instructions for the par­ticular part. The coded numbers in the program specify x-y-z coordinates in a Cartesian116 axis system, defining the various positions of the cutting tool in relation to the work part. By sequencing these positions in the program, the machine tool is directed to accomplish the machining of the part. A position feedback control system is used in most NC machines to verify that the coded instruc­tions have been correctly performed. Today a small com­puter is used as the controller in an NC machine tool. Since this form of numerical control is implemented by computer, it is called computer numerical control, or CNC. Another variation in the implementation of nu­merical control involves sending part programs over tel­ecommunications lines from a central computer to indi­vidual machine tools in the factory. This form of numeri­cal control is called direct numerical control, or DNC.

Many applications of numerical control have been de­veloped since its initial use to control machine tools. Other machines using numerical control include compo­nent-insertion machines used in electronics assembly, drafting machines that prepare engineering drawings, coordinate measuring machines that perform accurate inspections of parts. In these applications coded numeri­cal data are employed to control the position of a tool or workhead relative to some object. Such machines are used to position electronic components (e.g., semiconductor chip modules) onto a printed circuit board (PCB). It is basically an x-y positioning table that moves the printed circuit board relative to the part-insertion head, which then places the individual component into position on the board. A typical printed circuit board has dozens of in­dividual components that must be placed on its surface; in many cases, the lead wires of the components must be inserted into small holes in the board, requiring great precision by the insertion machine. The program that controls the machine indicates which components are to be placed on the board and their locations. This informa­tion is contained in the product-design database and is typically communicated directly from the computer to the insertion machine.

Automated assembly117. Assembly operations have traditionally been per­formed manually, either at single assembly workstations or on assembly lines with multiple stations. Owing to the high labour content and high cost of manual labour, greater attention has been given in recent years to the use of automation for assembly work. Assembly opera­tions can be automated using production line principles if the quantities are large, the product is small, and the design is simple (e.g., mechanical pencils, pens, and ciga­rette lighters). For products that do not satisfy these conditions, manual assembly is generally required.

Automated assembly machines have been developed that operate in a manner similar to machining transfer lines, with the difference being that assembly operations, instead of machining, are performed at the workstations. A typical assembly machine consists of several stations, each equipped with a supply of components and a mecha­nism for delivering the components into position for as­sembly. A workhead at each station performs the actual attachment of the component. Typical workheads include automatic screwdrivers, welding heads and other join­ing devices. A new component is added to the partially completed product at each workstation, thus building up the product gradually as it proceeds through the line. Assembly machines of this type are considered to be ex­amples of fixed automation, because they are generally configured for a particular product made in high volume. Programmable assembly machines are represented by the component-insertion machines employed in the electron­ics industry
Список использованной литературы:

(на русском языке)

А. Е. Агабекян. Английский для технических вузов. Ростов-на-Дону, 2008

Ю. В. Бжиская. Английский для строительных специальностей. Ростов-на-Дону, 2007

Л.А. Воронцова, А.П. Грызулина. Сборник контрольных работ и контрольно-тренировочных упражнений по английскому языку: Пособие для студентов-заочников 1-11 курсов неяз. фак. пед. ин-тов, М., Просвещение, 1984

Е. Н. Комарова. Английский для специальностей «зоотехния» и «ветеринария». М., 2008

И. П. Куклина. Пособие по английскому языку для средних специальных технических заведений. СПб, Каро, 2000

И. З. Новоселова, Н. С. Резник, Ю. М. Жилинский. Применение электричесива в сельском хозяйстве. М., Высшая школа, 1963

И. В. Орловская, Л. С. Самсонова Учебник английского языка для технических университетов. М, 2009

В. М. Павлоцкий. American Studies. Знакомимся с Америкой. СПб, Оракул, 1997

О. А. Письменная. Английский для международного туризма, М, Айрис Пресс, 2006

Т. Ю. Полякова. Английский для инженеров. М. 1998

А. С. Чеслова, Г. М. Татарчук. Пособие по подготовке к выпускным и вступительным экзаменам по английскому языку. М., Ростов-на-Дону, 2004

В. А. Шляхова, Т. Д. Любимцева. Английский для технических специальностей. М., Высшая школа, 2000

(на английском языке)

Archie A. Stone, Harold E. Gulvin. Machines for power farming. New – York. 1957

Saarniit M. English reading for students of farm mechanization. Tartu. 1961.

Culpin C. Farm machinery. London. 1969
Научные журналы:

Better crops with Plant Food

Bioscience

Biotechnology and Biochemistry

Journal of Agricultural Science

Japanese Journal of Crop Science

Ecological Research
Справочные издания:

Encyclopedia Britannica 2009

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, www.wikipedia.org

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Тираж 100 экз.

Типография СПбГАУ

196601, Санкт-Петербург-Пушкин, Садовая д.,14,

1 steam-operate – с паросиловой установкой

2 inter­nal combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания

3 storage battery – аккумуляторная батарея

4 elimination – устранение, отстранение

5 stroke – удар, ход поршня

6 cumbersomeness - громоздкость

7 com­bustion chamber – камера сгорания

8 valve - клапан

9 four-stroke-cycle – четырехтактный цикл

10 fraction – дробь, частица, доля

11 abbr. SI - искровое (электрическое) зажигание

12 abbr. CI - компрессионное воспламенение, воспламенение сжатием

13 pump – насос, накачивать

14 injector – инжектор, форсунка

15 nozzle – наконечник, сопло, форсунка

16 combustion chamber – камера сгорания

17 misname – неправильно называть

18 misnomer – неправильный термин, неправильное употребление термина

19 throttling - дросселирование

20 manifold – патрубок, труба, трубопровод

21 lb. – фунт (0,453 кг.)

22 withstand – противостоять, сопротивляться, выдерживать

23 crankshaft – коленчатый вал

24 deterioration – порча, повреждение; изнашивание, износ; разрушение

25 coolant – охлаждающая среда, охлаждающая жидкость

26 gravity CS – система охлаждения с циркуляцией самотеком, термосифонная система охлаждения

27 centrifugal - центробежный

28 outlet – выход, выпуск, выпускное отверстие

29 blade – лопасть, лезвие, лемех

30 grease – густая, консистентная смазка

31 spring-loaded – пружинный, находящийся под действием пружины

32 rubber - резина

33 seal – сальник, (уплотняющая) прокладка

34 fan - вентилятор

35 shutter – задвижка, заслонка, затвор

36 warmup – прогрев(ание), нагрев(ание)

37 gage – датчик, измерительный прибор

38 flattened – овального сечения

39 heat exchanger - теплообменник

40 rust – ржавчина

41 scale - накипь

42 electrolysis - электролиз

43 Prime Movers – машина – двигатель, первичный двигатель

44 velocity – векторная скорость

45 mercury - ртуть

46 reciprocating – двигать(ся), перемещать(ся) возвратно-поступательно

47 volatile – летучий, быстро испаряющийся

48 abbr. HEDC – head and dead centre – верхняя мертвая точка

49 abbr. CEDC – crankcase end dead centre – нижняя мертвая точка

50 outboard boat engine – подвесной (забортный) двигатель (моторной лодки)

51 flywheel – маховик, маховое колесо

52 hand crank – ручка, рукоятка; пусковая рукоятка

53 lubrication - смазка

54 cushion – амортизатор, амортизировать, смягчать

55 ample – достаточный, обильный

56 contamination - загрязнение

57 dilution – разжижжение

58 gear-type oil pump – шестеренчатый масляный насос

59 gear – зубчатое колесо

60 slot – прорезь, щель

61 connecting rod - шатун

62 piston pin – поршневой палец

63 petroleum-based - на нефтяной основе, базирующийся на нефтяном сырье (о производстве)

64 hydrocarbon - углеводород

65 lubricant - смазочный материал, смазка

66 go-kart - карт (микролитражный автомобиль для картинга)

67 film - пленка

68 oil pan - масляный поддон, маслосборник, поддон картера

69 compression – воспламенение от сжатия

70 spark – воспламенение от искры или принудительного зажигания

71 precombustion chamber – пусковая камера

72 injection – впрыск, впрыскивание

73 wire – проволока, провод

74 dry-cell – сухой элемент

75 flashlight – ручной электрический фонарик

76 deteriorate – ухудшаться; портиться; изнашиваться

77 trend – общее направление, тенденция

78 spark plug – запальная свеча, свеча зажигания

79 insulated - изолированный

80 magneto – магнето, индуктор

81 cylinder block – бок цилиндров

82 cylinder head – крышка цилиндра

83 combustion chamber – камера сгорания

84 piston - поршень

85 piston ring – поршневое кольцо

86 piston pin – поршневой палец

87 connecting rod – шатун, соединительная тяга

88 drop-forge - штамповать

89 I-beam – двутавровое железо, профиль, балка

90 crankshaft – коленчатый вал

91 bearing – подшипник

92 babbitt - баббит (сплав на основе олова или свинца)

93 valve - клапан

94 camshaft – кулачковый (распределительный) вал

95 valve lifter – толкатель клапана

96 manifold – патрубок, труба, трубопровод

97 lane — ряд

98 gasoline-powered — с бензиновым двигателем

99 fuel intake — впрыск топлива

100 among other things — кроме всего прочего

101 what speed he has averaged — какова была его средняя скорость


102 pressure ring — уплотнительное кольцо

103 piston ring — поршневое кольцо

104 running gear – передаточный механизм (двигателя)

105 independent suspension – независимая подвеска

106 steering – рулевое управление

107 the Engine – двигатель, мотор

108 carburetion - карбюрация, насыщение парами бензина, смесеобразование

109 ignition – зажигание, воспламенение

110 lubrication – смазка, смазывание, подача смазки

111 cooling - охлаждение

112 the Power Transmission - передача

113 sequencing – упорядоченный, последовательный

114 pressworking - прессование

115 Numerical control – цифровой контроль (abbr. NC)

116 Cartesian декартов; декартовский, Cartesian coordinate system — прямоугольная система координат

117 Automated assembly – автоматическая сборка


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